How To Get A Hack License In New York City

A New York City Taxi Drivers License is called a “Hack License”. Officially it is known as a New York City Taxi Operators License. The license allows the holder / driver to operate a Yellow Medallion Taxicab in the Five Boroughs of the City of New York. Only a Yellow Medallion Taxicab is permitted to pick up passengers hailing from the street in the City. The Hack license, issued through The New York City Taxi & Limousine Commission, is the only license for operating a Yellow Taxicab.

There are other licenses issued by the New York City Taxi & Limousine Commission for car service and limousines but they can not be used to operate the Yellow Taxicab. The Hack license however can be used to operate a limousine or car service vehicle. This fact makes the Hack License the most valuable of NYC T&LC issued operator licenses, as well as the most prestigious.

There are approximately 44,000 drivers carrying a Hack License in New York City today.


The Process and Requirements

o All applicants for a New York City Taxi Hack License must be no less than nineteen (19) Years of age

o Applicants are required to have, a Class A, B, C, or E N.Y. State Drivers License, or a license from New Jersey, Connecticut or Pennsylvania of a similar class.

o Most licenses in New York State are Class D.

o To change a license from a class D to a class E one must go to the Department of Motor Vehicles and pay an upgrade fee.

o There will be no test.

o The fee will be approximately fifty dollars.

A problem with how to get a hack license is that an applicant must owe no outstanding parking, or traffic summonses. If money is owed to the New York City for parking or traffic violations it must paid, or a documented settlement agreement with the appropriate agency must be presented to the NYC T&LC licensing division.

All applicants for a New York City Taxi Hack License must be citizens, or legal residents of the United States.

Applicants are also required to attend a New York State certified, six-hour Defensive Driving Course.

o This course must be attended no longer than six months prior to the date an application is filed with the New York City Taxi & Limousine Commission for a Hack License.

o The number one provider of defensive driving courses for New York City Taxi Drivers is the Master Cabbie Taxi Academy. Classes are available six days per week. The price is $45. or $39. with online registration.

The medical requirement for How to Get A Hack License is contained on Form B of the New York City Taxi & Limousine Commission Taxi Drivers Application which must be completed by a certified Medical Doctor.

o The application for the New York City Hack License must be submitted in person to the New York City Taxi & Limousine Commission at either 32-02 Queens Blvd. Long Island City N.Y. 11101 Monday through Friday 9AM to 4PM.

o There is a second submission location in Staten Island. Open Monday, Tuesday and Thursdays at 1893 Richmond Terrace Staten Island NY 10302.

o No walk-ins are permitted at the Staten Island Location.

o To make an appointment call: 212-227-6324.

o At the time of application submission the applicant will be required to pay a sixty dollar application fee. The fee must be paid by money order made payable to the NYC TLC.

o At the time of application submission the applicant must pay a seventy-five dollar for fingerprinting fee. The fee must be paid by money order made payable to N.Y.S.D.C.J.S.

All applicants for the Hack License are required to be tested for illegal drugs. The Hack License will not be issued to any person not completing the test.

o The New York City Taxi & Limousine Commission approved drug testing center for new applicants is located at 31-00 47th Ave. Long Island City NY 11101.

o The center is open Monday through Friday from 8:00 AM to 5:00 PM.

o Payment must be made by money order made payable to Lab Corp. Inc.

o Persons applying for the Hack License and failing the drug test will be directed to a licensing standards hearing conducted by the New York City Taxi & Limousine Commission. Following the hearing the application for the Hack License may be denied a license.

The most time consuming aspect of how to get a hack license in NYC is mandatory pre-license training for all New York City Hack Licensees. The training is in taxi related subjects, conducted by approved training institutions. The minimum training requirement is a twenty-four hour program. The program consists of a three day course, eight hours per day, with three basic components. Geography/Map Reading, Rules and Regulations / Defensive Driving and Customer Service.

There is also a course for Eighty Hours available consisting of nine eight hour days of classroom training, and one day of testing. (The NYC TAXI OPERATORS EXAM.) The eighty hour program is the original taxi driver training program on which the New York City Taxi driver exam is based.

There are other programs for how to get a hack license available which have no time constraints. The most prominent such program is conducted by Master Cabbie Taxi Academy. The programs are unlimited in length, so long as the student maintains a regular schedule at the school, and does not have to re-learn what had been taught previously.

Certain unlimited programs include all fees needed for the New York City Taxi & Limousine Commission. This service allows persons utilizing credit to have Master Cabbie Taxi Academy make the fee’s available when the student is ready for each phase of the Hack licensing process This removes the need to purchase money orders for which only cash can be used.

The taxi driver test for how to get a hack license in New York City consists of two parts. It is administered by the New York City Taxi & Limousine Commission each week at the Master Cabbie Taxi Academy.

o The Hack License applicant must successfully complete an English Proficiency as part of the exam. It is a low level ESL exam for basic, English proficiency, consisting of four parts. There are thirty questions, fifteen of which are fill-ins, and fifteen of which are multiple choice. An applicant must score twenty-one correctly to pass the exam. Applicants failing the exam are allowed to sit for a second exam on another date. Applicants failing the exam for a second time must submit a new application to the New York City Taxi & Limousine Commission if they wish to continue the process of obtaining a New York City Hack License.

o The final step in the process of How To Get A Hack License in NYC is, The New York City Taxi Operators exam. The Taxi Operators exam consists of two parts. One part is open book and the other is closed book. Part One consists of ten questions. The applicant is allowed to use a Five (5) Borough New York City Atlas and a Street address locator during this portion of the exam. For this portion of the exam forty-five minutes is allowed.

o Part Two of the New York City Taxi Operators exam allows the applicant seventy-five minutes and consists of forty questions. Approximately twelve questions will pertain to rules and regulations and defensive driving questions. The remaining twenty-eight questions will pertain to geography, landmarks, highways, air, bus and train terminals, etc. Applicants must answer thirty-five questions correctly, scoring seventy percent, or better, to pass the exam. Applicants failing the exam are allowed to sit for a second exam on another date. Applicants failing the exam for a second time must submit a new application to the New York City Taxi & Limousine Commission if they wish to continue the process.

Taxi drivers in New York City earn as much as one thousand dollars per week and more.

If you wish to apply for a New York City Hack License you should contact Master Cabbie Taxi Academy. At: 718-472-1699 or 1-800-955-TAXI.

© Terry Gelber October 2007

Terry Gelber has a NYC Hack License.

Alternative Pleading in a Divorce Action? Not So Fast!

When filing a dispute complaint, it appears that a typical lawyer's standard pleading philosophy is to make as many claims as theoretically possible, relying on the court or opposing counsel to take the appropriate action to strike the weakest claims; a strategy often referred to as "throw as much mud against the wall and see what sticks!" The Pennsylvania Rules of Civil Procedure (Pa. RCP 1020 and 1021) appear to support such a strategy by specifically allowing alternative pleading as well as pleading contradictory claims. In fact, the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania has explicitly ruled that "

Wharton Business School Facts and Figures

Established in 1881, Wharton Business School at the University of Pennsylvania (also known as "Penn State") is the world's first college business school and is one of four undergraduate degree schools at the University of Pennsylvania others including Arts, Sciences, Engineering and Nursing . It was founded by American entrepreneur and industrialist Joseph Wharton whose vision for the school was for graduates to become "pillars of the state, whether in private or public life."

Wharton is an Ivy League Business School and has been ranked and rated among the most promising in the nation – renamed for innovative teaching methods as well as a range of academic programs and resources. Because of this, admissions are competitive and selective. Typically, the undergraduate program receives about 5,500 applications per year, and less than about 10% are accepted.

Wharton School offers BS, MBA and Ph.D. degrees and offers concentrations in Accounting, Business and Public Policy, Entrepreneurial Management, Environmental Management, Finance, Health Care Systems, Human Resource and Organizational Management, Insurance and Risk Management, Legal Studies and Business Ethics, Management, Marketing, Multinational Management, Operations and Information Management, Real Estate, Retailing, Statistics and Strategic Management.

Approximately 30% of BS students graduate with more than one undergraduate degree, and 35% of students study abroad. Wharton has an alumni network of 85,000 graduates and the school has more than 4,900 undergraduate, MBA, executive MBA and doctor students. Thousand more students in other undergraduate and MBA majors choose to take public policy and management courses in the school of business as well.

Aside from the first Wharton School at the University of Pennsylvania located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, other campuses stay in other locations. These include San Francisco, California on the top floor of the Folger Building in the city's business and financial district; Fontainebleau, France; and Singapore – the latter two through an alliance between the Wharton School of Business and INSEAD, one of the world's largest graduate business schools, founded in 1957.

Wharton School of Business is also known for their online research journal Knowledge @ Wharton . The journal is a multi-lingual, free biweekly online resource consulting of podcasts, research papers, books, conferences and more. Knowledge @ Wharton has over 1.30 million subscribers worldwide and has over 2,000 articles in its database.


Current Students: 4,950
Underglude: 2,621
MBA: 1,730
MBA Programs for Executives: 411
Doctoral: 188
Standing Faculty: 219
Associated Faculty: 71
New Faculty: 23
International Faculty: 95
Women Faculty: 59
Alumni: 85,000
Endowment: $ 656 million

Romantic Places to Elope – Say "I Do" at the Ultra-Romantic Pocono Mountains Caesar Resorts!

Known as the most romantic destination in the north east united states, the Poconos mountain and resorts is among the perfect romantic places to elope! Tucked away in Pennsylvania mountains, the Poconos is a favored location for romance, from romantic getaways, to elaborate weddings and even intimate elopement weddings. There's no place like the Poconos when it comes to love and romance! This is the perfect place to elope and then enjoy your honeymoon!

If you are planning to elope in the Poconos there is one thing that you want to keep in mind. The state of Pennsylvania does have a three day waiting period to obtain a marriage license. Both you and your spouse to be can apply at any Pennsylvania court house at least three business days prior to your wedding date. The license is valid for sixty days and can (of course) only being used in the state of Pennsylvania.

There are a total of three resorts that share what is known as the Caesars Pocono Resorts and they are the Cove Haven, Pocono Palace, and Paradise Stream.

Pocono Palace: The suites at Pocono Palace are undetected the most popular and provides the ultimate for couples with hot romance and fun on their mind. Pocono Palace captures the essence of a country club style resort with a nine-hole golf course, 32,000 square foot entertainment and sports center and of course, the legendary suits. The resort has recently added the Roman Tower to their suit collection. It includes the trademark seven foot tall champagne glass whirlpool as well as a heart shaped jacuzzi, log burning fire place, round king size bed, dry sauna and a steamy shower bath perfect for two. A cathedral window gives you a panoramic view of the grounds – making this one luxurious suite! There are several other suite options included at Pocono Palace including Champagne Tower by Cleopatra, Fantasy Apple, Lakeside Chalet and Club Lodge.

Paradise Stream: Located in the heart of the Pocono Mountains, Paradise Stream appeals to the hot and hip Generation Y. The resort features a posh lounge, modern dance club and contemporary hip decor. The suits are newly designed and have a great mix of old and new. You 'll of course have the option of a Champagne Tower suite, with the addition of Diana's Oasis and Lakeside Villa amongstst others. Diana's Oasis pays homage to the Greek goddess Diana, with it's sensous design, private heated indoor pool, log burning fireplace and round king size bed surrounded by Roman columns. Lakeside Villa suites offer the privacy of an individual Roman style villa with a private balcony that overlooks Lake Eden. The suite also features an oversized 20 square foot glass and tile shower for two, king size bed and the famous heart shaped whirlpool bath for two.

Cove Haven: Cove Haven is a very intimate resort located along the scenic Lake Wallenpaupack. Cove Haven offers five additional suites not offered at Paradise Stream of Pocono Palace. Cove Fantasy, Cove Harbor, Harbor Tower, Spa-Side Harbourette and Juliette. Cove Harbor is a gorgeous split level design with the king size bed and sleeping area in the sunken bedroom. It also includes the custom log burning fireplace and heart-shaped whirlpool. Cove Fantasy includes a private indoor heated pool, sunken bedroom and dry sauna as well.

Capital Airlines and the Vickers-Armstrongs Viscount

Capital Airlines, along with Eastern and US Airways, were the three major carriers to have been incubated in Pennsylvania.

Fathered by Clifford Ball, an automobile dealer in Hudson-Essex, it was conceived as far back as 1919 when the Stinson airplane he had viewed during an exhibition flight had sparked his interest in aviation. Jointly purchasing 40 acres of land already used for aerial sightseeing purposes in Dravosburg with D. Barr Peat in 1925, he invested $ 35,000 to establish the Pittsburgh McKeesport Airport, clearing the land and building a small hangar with a machine shop before it officially opened in June .

Conducting his own sightseeing flights, for which passengers paid $ 5.00, he started a flying school and periodically held air shows, renaming the grass airport Bettis Field the following year in honor of Lieutenant Cyrus Bettis, an air service pilot who had been killed in Bellefonte, Pennsylvania.

Ball's leisure service, however, was quickly upgraded. After President Coolidge had signed the Kelly Air Mail Act on February 2, 1925-thus allowing the postmaster general to conclude private contracts for the carriage of mail-he was awarded the shortest, 121-mile route for this purpose. Extended from Pittsburgh to Cleveland via Youngstown, Ohio, the route, designated CAM (Contract Air Mail) 11, it was characterized by low operating costs; the maximum, $ 3.00-per-pound allowable rate; the highest ton-mile compensation; and a significant mail volume, and there before made it the most profitable.

Employing three Waco 9s, he inaugurated service on April 21, 1927, carrying 20,000 pounds of mail and flying more than 70,000 miles during the balance of the year. By 1928, these figures had respectively increased to 55,000 pounds and 85,000 miles.

An expanding fleet, consisting of Fairchilds, Ryans, Travel Airs, and Waco 9s and 10s, enabled him to earn incremental revenue, at a $ 20-per-passenger rate, from the increased cabin volumes that they offered on scheduled mail runs.

Unlike other contemporary airlines, it enjoyed positive growth, earning $ 291,000 of government revenue, transporting almost 100,000 pounds of mail, and operating night flights between Pittsburgh and Cleveland in 1929, themselves aided by the recently-installed lighted airway.

Spurred by this success, and the needed revenue from his sale of Bettis Field to Aircraft and Airways of America, Inc., to do so, he transformed his company into a full-fledged air transport carrier, stretching the wings of its hitherto minuscule route network easterly from Pittsburgh to Washington on August 14 of that year.

The mail-accompanying passenger service was upgraded with the acquisition of a single, 12-seat Ford Trimotor in 1930, enabling him to create a combination mail-and-passenger company designed Pennsylvania Air Lines, and a reduction in fares attracted a 2,323 total flown over 209,000 miles.

The expanded operation was short-lived. Postmaster General Walter Folger Brown, intent on creating a nationwide airmail system, thought to connect its current fragments, and therefore Granted Ball a six-month contract extension in April of 1930 for his Pittsburgh-Cleveland route until he could sell his fledgling carrier and have it integrated with the larger operation.

The solution came in the form of the Pittsburgh Aviation Industries Corporation (PAIC), the holding company formed in 1928 to overseas aviation interests. Agreeing to acquire 8,000 shares of stock at a $ 10.00-per-share price, and placing an additional $ 57,500 worth in escrow, PAIC took over Pennsylvania Air Lines on October 24, 1930 which, in the event, was guaranteed its finding route to Cleveland until May of 1934. Clifford Ball, at least temporarily, remained its vice president and operations manager.

The post office's newly created space-volume compensation scheme, replacing the previous weight payment plan, prompted the purchase of larger, multi-engine Stinson and Ford transports. Their increased space, coupled with fare reductions, enabled it to increase the number of passengers transported in 1931 by 100 percent.

In fact, its new owners charted a successful course. When its coveted airmail contract for the Pittsburgh-Washington sector was awarded, it commended service over it on June 8, 1931, introducing three daily round trips all the way to Cleveland in August. A fourth frequency was added two years later and a route extension saw its aircraft land in Detroit.

But acquisition and merger, once initiated, only propagated. Indeed, progressive PAIC stock purchases ate away at the formerly independent carrier until it became a wholly owned subsidiary on October 1, 1933, sparking the resignation of its very founder.

Following the unsuccessful and accident-plagued Army assumption of airmail service, the postmaster general, under the Black-McKellar Law, once again requested bids from private companies to re-serve it, many of which did so as "new airlines." These, in effect, were the original ones brandishing new names. The former Ball creation, redesignated Pennsylvania Airlines and Transport Company, Inc., followed suit, but was only granted the short, Detroit-Milwaukee segment, while Central Air Lines, itself the renamed Pittsburgh Airways, setled onto its former turf, from Cleveland to Washington, because of its five-cent-per-mile lower bid.

However, winning bids and profitable bids were not necessarily the same thing. Indeed, John D. and Richard W. Coulter, sons of a Greensburg coal operator, had to inject it with a half-million dollars of life-sustaining capital.

Like its predecessor, it also carried passengers between Pittsburgh and Washington.

Sparks, as well as airplanes, flew on the routes where the two competed, as they tried to counterbalance the scales sinking on one side because of declining mail revenues with those rising due to passenger earnings.

Pennsylvania Airlines, at least from its statistics, appeared successful. In 1935, for instance, it transported 44,855 passengers and flew more than 1.6 million miles. By lowering its fares and replacing its rapidly outdated Stinson and Ford aircraft with ten Boeing 247Ds acquired from United Airlines, it enticed ridership surface transport forms, such as trains, and enjoyed explosive growth, with 83,199-passenger and 2.9 million-mile totals in 1936.

Central had transported 11,604 with a five-Stinson fleet in 1935. But these figures only told one side of the story.

A faltering financial foundation, created by declining airmail revenues and dilution of a single market by two competitive carriers, resolved in both their losses.

Consolidation of the two, the only envisioned remedy, became effective on November 1, 1936, after Pennsylvania had acquired Central's shares, and the resultant company, using Pittsburgh's Allegheny County Airport as its operational base with fight control, meteorology, and maintenance capabilities, was redesignated Pennsylvania-Central Airlines.

The momentum initiated by the two independent carriers continued. Two routes were granted the following year-Pittsburgh-Parkersburg-Charleston (West Virginia) on April 8 and Washington-Baltimore-Harrisburg-Williamsport-Buffalo on October 26.

Indeed, its aerial momentum, once set in motion, was unarrestible. Four more routes, on which it earned a 33.3-cent-per-mile subsidy, were awarded the following year: Pittsburgh-Buffalo, Washington-Norfolk, Grand Rapids (Michigan) -Chicago, and Detroit-Sault St. Louis. Marie. A permanent certificate of convenience and necessity protected it from potential competitors.

Now touching down in key, industry-concentrated cities in the northeast, it quickly became one of the country's largest regional airlines and posted a profit in 1939.

Along with its ever-expanding network, which soon also encompassed Erie, Knoxville, and Birmingham, came new equipment. Receiving the first of ten Douglas DC-3s that same year, it was able to offer increased capacity and comfort, yet generate a passenger-only, mail-independent profit it had been unable to do with the Boeing 247Ds that replaced. Carrying 342,872 passenger in 1941, it flew nearly 6.5 million miles.

World War II made a significant, albeit temporary, imprint on its operation, the CAA requisitioning 16 of its 22 aircraft for military personnel and supply flights, while an agreement with the Air Transport Command saw it operational military cargo services from Washington to Chicago, Miami , and New Orleans. On December 21, 1943, it established the Roanoke Naval Transitional Flying School to provide pilot training.

It emerged from the war clouds through which its DC-3s and Lockheed Lodestars had blown having transported 19,000 military personnel and more than 26 million pounds of cargo.

Propelled by profitability and airliner advancement, it placed a $ 10 million order in September of 1944 for 15 greater-capacity, quad-engined DC-4s, which would signal the transfer of its new headquarters and operations-maintenance base from Allegheny County Airport to Washington and reflect its new name, "PCA – The Capital Airline," highlighting its now-outgrown regional carrier status. This was equally cemented when it became the fourth Civil Aeronautics Board-designated carrier, after American, TWA, and United, to serve the coveted New York-Chicago route, although initially via Pittsburgh and Detroit, on December 16, 1945. It inaugurated service between the two the following July.

The service also marked a strategy change. In order to remain competitive with lower-cost airlines and thus retain passengers, trunk carriers were pressured into lowering their fares. Pennsylvania Central, officially rebranding itself "Capital Airlines" in 1948, justified this practice to the CAB by operating its unpresurized DC-4s with 60 higher-density, single-class seating configurations at off-peak, ordinarily idle times to increase aircraft utilization, and, coupled with reduced in-flight amenities, was able to reduce the standard six-cents-per-mile tariff to four. Dubbed "Nighthawk," these flights to the Windy City began on November 4 of that year at an initial, $ 33.30 one-way fare.

Now the fifth-largest US airline, Capital strove to play catch up to the "Big Four" by differentiating itself with innovation and thought to do so with new powerplant technology mated to a British design. Called the Vickers-Armstrongs Viscount, it would give it a significant competitive edge by offering increased speed, improved passenger comfort, and reduced block times. It would, in effect, create the standard other carriers would aspire to achieve in order to remain competitive-in other words, it led and the others would now have to follow. But its strategy could only be successful if it operated significant numbers of them to blank its route system.

And the numbers, like the altitudes of a climbing aircraft, rapidly increased: three were ordered in May of 1954, 37 followed in August, and another 20 joined the queue in November. It would not only herald a new engine type, it would be the first time that a British aircraft would be operated in the US since the days of the Havilland DH.4 biplane.

Originally designed to fulfill the Brabazon Committee's Type IIIB requirement, issued in March of 1945, for a quad-engined, gas turbine airliner to transport 24 passengers on short- to medium-range, inter-European sectors, the aircraft, designated V.609 , was previously revised to accommodate 32 in order to meet British European Airways' needs after it had placed the launch order for it.

The low-wing airliner, sporting pencil-thin nacelles and oval windows, first took to the skies on July 16, 1948, but was once again modified. Powered by four, 1,550 shaft horsepower Rolls Royce Dart RDa3 engines and redubbed the Viscount 700, it incorporated a five-foot wingspan increase and a fuselage stretch to carry between 40 and 53 passengers, first flying in this guise on August 28, 1950.

Neverheless, it was the prototype, renumbered V.630, which operated the world's first scheduled turbine-powered flight that summer with BEA, serving London, Paris, and Edinburgh.

Powered by 1,780-shp Rolls Royce RDa6 Dart 510 turboprops, the V.700D, with an 83.10-foot overall length and a 93-foot, 8.5-inch span, featured a 64,500-pound gross weight. Speed ​​was 310 mph at 20,000 feet and range, with its maximum fuel, was 2,000 miles.

Then Britain's best-selling airliner, the Viscount series, including the higher capacity, stretched-fuselage V.800, achieved 444 sales.

Capital took delivery of its first Viscount on June 16, 1955 and inaugurated it into service on July 16, operating two daily nonstops and a single direct frequency on the Washington-Chicago route. As envisioned, its advanced engine technology, higher speeds, and shorter sector times served as a magnet, increasing its market share between any cities it connected.

And it capitalized on this fact by demonstrating the aircraft's advances in its very ticket jackets, pointing out, "On your flight … the pilots will be flying with Bendix radio equipment. For many years, Bendix Radio navigation and communication equipment has flown with the world's great airlines. These electronic devices are used by the pilot to guide him on a 'true as an arrow' course or to maintain instant radio contact with the ground … "

The Viscount, however, was only one catalyst of the airline's explosive growth. For reasons cited as "the strengthening of an individual carrier … for the sound development of the national system of which it is a part," the Civil Aeronautics Board awarded Capital Airlines a treasure-trove of route awards in 1955, allowing it to shed the predominately short-range northeastern network with which it had been associated since its early expansion and offer nonstop segments from New York to Buffalo, Pittsburgh, Toledo, Detroit, and Chicago. As the largest airline in terms of passenger boards in Pittsburgh, it enplanned more than 600,000 passengers per year.

By mid-1957, three-fourths of its route system was operated by Viscount aircraft, and the following year, some city pair frequencies had reached shuttle proportions: New York-Chicago (16 daily, ten nonstop), New York-Detroit (15 ), New York-Pittsburgh (ten), and Washington-Chicago (ten).

However, while the fifth-largest trunk carrier was buoyed by the wings of its Viscounts, it was forced into a nose-dove by its revenue, having overestimated the cash flow they were to generate-and with which it could repay its debt to Vickers -Armstrongs. Operating 46 of them in 1956, it ordered another 15, now well on the way to its targeted 75. But it only produced a loss for that year-and the one after that.

Once initiated, its strategy of attracting passengers with advanced technology and superior speed seemed unstoppable-and narrowly focused. Virtually plunged into bankruptcy in 1958 by a mechanical of strike, it persisted in its purchasing strategy, ordering 14 of the world's first pure-jet airliner, the de Havilland DH.106 Comet- again designed into the British-and then entered into negotiations with Convair for the quad-engined CV-880, both a higher-capacity and -speed jetliner (by some 100 mph) than even the Comet.

Yet, for all the elements that caused Capital to shine, there was an equal number that caused it to tarnish: mounting debt, four Viscount accidents, and the CAB's delayed granting of lucrative Florida routes as a potential solution. Although it leased 11 DC-6Bs from Pan American for this purpose, it was unable to reverse its dwindling spiral, forced, instead, to accept the lifeline cast out to it by United Airlines.

The CAB, approving its acquisition application on June 1, 1961, wave United a Pennsylvania presence and created the western world's largest carrier, which served 116 destinations with 267 aircraft, in the process.

As the Viscounts were repainted in its live, the Capital Airlines name disappeared-one aircraft at a time.

Unique Early American Furniture-The Pie Safe

The pie safe of the early 1800s was a wooden kitchen cupboard with several narrow shelves enclosed by fitted doors. Doors were crafted from various materials, including punched tin, grill work, screens, or fabric. Although the pie safe was made to protect the sweet treats from rodents and insects the construction did allow for air circulation. Air circulation was actually an incidental positive feature, since it helped reduce mold developing on the stored foods. With lack of modern refrigeration and food preservatives cooks had no other way to insure freshness and safety of their pies.


The standard American pie safe stood on the floor supported by 4 legs. However, in the Pennsylvania Dutch region, during the 18th century, hanging models were popular. Some pie safes from this region have been found to have extensions of wood with holes, thereby allowing the flexibility of the piece resting on the floor or being hung. Typically, the doors from the Pennsylvania Dutch region were crafted from tinware that displayed unique and interesting patterns. By 1830, tin smiths were producing quality doors, while cabinet makers had perfected the craft of making more durable cupboards. The center of production for these cupboards was Connecticut.

Regional Differences

It is possible to identify the region of the country where a pie safe was crafted by the type of wood used in construction.

Cabinet makers from the Carolinas and Virginia typically used yellow pine.

In the Pennsylvania and New England region soft pine was the preferred wood. In Texas, pie safes were crafted from Spanish cedar. Those made from cherry and curly maple are rare in all regions.

Determining Value

With many antiques the following list provides the factors that help determine the value and cost of a piece. However, value is often in the eye of the beholder and cost follows value. None-the-less, here are the primary determinants of value.

  • Age
  • Region of country where crafted
  • Construction- For example, chestnut wood is rarer than pine, oak was rare, poplar was common
  • Construction and Intricacy of Doors- detailed patterned tin punch will cost more than solid doors
  • Unique finishes- painted or unpainted, preferred colors are red, green, goldenrod
  • Provenance-can the piece be attributed to a particular cabinet maker or tinsmith, or personage of historical significance owning the piece at one time

Prices Realized

Records of shopkeepers in the 1830s show pie safes were advertised between $8.00 and $12.00.

2013 an American, 19th century, chestnut wood with eight pinwheel tins and old red paint sold for $2300.00 at auction.

2013 an American, first half 19th century crafted of pine with poplar secondary, punched tin doors and sides and lower drawer with wooden pull realized $645.00 at auction.


By the latter part of the 19th century pie safes were being produced in factories. No longer were they unique creations of individual cabinet makers. As the century moved forward, oak became the popular wood to produce ice boxes in which a block of ice was used to store foods. This marked the beginning of early refrigeration and the end of storing foods in a pie safe.

Book Addresses Indian American Immigration

They are known as the turbaned tide. Novelist Diya Das explores the journey made by Indian immigrants from the subcontinent to America’s shores in Evolution of an Identity. Weaving the narrative as historical fiction, the novel focuses on a young girl who uncovers the American roots of her Indian family tree.

The story unfolds in three venues. The protagonist discovers a Californian ancestor, a scholar-turned-farmworker who participated in the 1917-18 movement to gain Indian independence from Great Britain. She then follows the voyage of an educated aunt who immigrated to Chicago in the 1970s to work as a newspaper columnist. Finally, the narrator explores how to merge her Indian and American identities as she attends a Hindu festival in New York City.

The novel is filled with rich cultural details, solid historical references and fitting literary allusions. Das’ research ended up taking her on a personal journey. The narrator’s odyssey mirrored that of the author. Where facts and imagination did not create a coherent story, Das employed elements of her own life as a first generation Indian American immigrant.

About the author

Diya Das was born in India on 24th September,1991. She is currently a senior at Wyoming Seminary College Preparatory School at Kingston in northeast Pennsylvania. She lives in Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania with her parents.

A National AP Scholar and a member of Johns Hopkins University’s Study of Exceptional Talent program since 2004, Diya attended the Pennsylvania Governor’s School for the Sciences in the summer of 2007. She is currently the co-editor-in-chief of her school newspaper, The Opinator, and a member of her school’s chorale and orchestra. In her free time, Diya figure skates and plays piano and violin.

The 7 Golden Rules of Milton Hershey by Greg Rothman – Book Review

Title and Author: The 7 Golden Rules of Milton Hershey by Greg Rothman

Synopsis of Content:

This little book recounts the failures and remarkable success of Milton Hershey, founder of the Hershey Chocolate Company and Hershey, Pennsylvania. He was born into a poor family and his father was a failure at everything he tried. He received a fourth grade education. Hershey made multiple attempts in business, mostly in the confectionary trade, and all of them failed. He attempted to open a candy factory, store or both in Lancaster, Pennsylvania, Denver, Chicago, New Orleans, New York City, and back again to Pennsylvania. For years success eluded him.

Finally he did find success after a great deal of experimentation and dogged persistence. Sometimes he built the largest candy empire in the world. He founded a city named after himself and a school to train poor children. Hershey chocolate became a household name through the world.

Hershey did develop Seven Golden Rules that he believed were essential to success. Those rules are here explained by Rothman and given more contemporary names. They include:

1. Thinking Outside the Box

2. Perseverance

3. Hard Work

4. Take Risks

5. Take Care of Your Workers

6. Give to Live

7. Your Life is Your Legacy

These rules will come as no surprise to those who study success minded people through history. They echo the same principles of success claimed by most successful people.

Readability / Writing Quality:

This is a very easy book to read. It is small, only 43 pages long, but packed with insight and a fascinating story of the king of chocolate and the secrets to success he found.

Notes on Author:

Greg Rothman is a noted and successful realtor in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania.

Three Great Ideas You Can Use:

1. Perseverance: if there is one golden rule of success from Hershey it is the underestimated power of persistence. Hershey met one failure after another in seven different American cities before he found success. He tried different types of candy, different processes and different packaging. In time he mastered a milk chocolate recipe that not only appeared to the masses but also was easy to manufacture in bulk and had a good shelf life. It took many "failures" before he found that success.

2. Hershey was a firm believer in hard work. He found that he could accomplish his goals only through hard work and observed the same of those around him. But he also enjoyed working hard. If you enjoy your work it goes more easily and you are able and willing to work hard. If you love your work it rarely seems hard and you can devote as much time to it as you wish.

3. Hershey believed in taking risks. His risks were calculated, and with more maturity and experience became increasingly calculated. He did not advocate reckless risk taking. Although he recognized from his own life lessons that big rewards do not come to those who will not take a risk.

Publication Information:

The 7 Golden Rules of Milton Hershey by Greg Rothman.

Copyright: 2005 Executive Books.

General Rating : Good

Trouble On The Horizon – Severance Agreements And Recent Modifications To PA UC

On June 17, 2011 Pennsylvania Governor Tom Corbett signed into law the Legislature's latest amendments to Pennsylvania Unemployment Compensation Law. The changes described below will take effect on January 1, 2012. Although normally designed as a cost-cutting measure with regard to the Commonwealth's budget issues, the modifications may have some unexpected consequences for attorneys and their clients when negotiating severance packages, and lawyers who practice in this area of ​​the law should expect some interesting, and probably confusing, issues to arise in the future.

Generally speaking, the Pennsylvania Legislature revised 43 PS Section 804 to require Claimants to account for severance packages when applying for Unemployment Compensation Benefits. While it does not appear that the changes to Section 804 (d) will require a potential Claimant to hold off on filing for unemployment benefits until after he has collected all of his severance payment, it does appear that they will adversely affect potential claimants' eligibility for benefits. Although the new provisions may reduce eligibility for potential claimants, it seems likely that they could dramatically increase litigation as they appear to generate more questions than issues that they will resolve. Examples of the types of issues that may arise follow.

First Example: Very often the issues surrounding an employee's Unemployment Compensation Benefits are handled within the context of a larger and more comprehensive employment matter between the employer and former employee. When the aforesaid employment matter is resolved in some way, it is not unusual for part of the settlement funds to be issued directly to the employee, with the remaining about issued directly to the employee's attorney. It is not clear from the new Unemployment Compensation law whether the funds issued directly to the employee's attorney would have been considered as part of the employee's severance.

Second Example: Sometimes an employee refuses to issue two (2) separate checks to the employee and his attorney. In this case, it is typical for the attorney to receive all of the funds, deduct any outstanding fees and costs, and issue a check for the difference to the employee. Although receiving an amount reduced by attorney fees and costs, the employer will generally issue the employee a 1099 or W-2 for the full amount. As above, it is not clear whether, in the context of Unemployment Compensation, the full amount, or the amount actually received by the employee would have been considered as part of the employee's severance.

Third Example: Sometimes an employee issues funds directly to the employee's attorney in the same amount as the retainer already paid by the employee. The employer issues the attorney a 1099 for the funds remitted. The attorney, in turn, issues the employee a refund of the retainer paid. Would this refund be considered part of an employee's severance package?

Fourth Example: Some employees' settlements with employers include both a payment to an employee as severance and a sum for what is essentially punitive damages. The payment remitted for severance results in a W-2 issued to the employee by the employer while the payment remitted for "punitive damages" results in a 1099 from the employer, and is generally not subject to the standard taxes attached to salaries. In the alternative, some employers provide a lump sum without holding any amount for taxes and issue a 1099 for the lump sum. It is unclear how the Pennsylvania Department of Labor would deal with these situations. Would it consider the entire pre-tax-withholding amount to be an offset in terms of the employee's severance package? If not, and it just considers the net amount paid, it could be to the detriment to the employee who got the lump sum as it would appear that the employee who got a pre-tax severance package got a larger amount and the Department of Labor may offset the larger amount.

As seen above, while the new additions to Pennsylvania's Unemployment Compensation could reduce potential claimant's eligibility for benefits, they appear to raise more questions than the issues they resolve. It will be interesting to see how the issues raised above, and others like them, are deal with by the Department of Labor and the Courts.

For the readers' convenience, the additions to Pennsylvania Unemployment Compensation Law are as follows: 43 PS Section 804 of Pennsylvania's Unemployment Compensation Law has been modified with an amendment to subsection (4) (1) which now reads: "benefits shall be paid to each eligible employee who is unemployed with respect to such week, compensation in an amount equal to his weekly benefit rate less the total of (i) the remuneration, if any, paid or payable to him with respect to such weeks for services performed which is in excess of his partial benefit credit, and (ii) vacation pay, if any, which is in excess of his partial benefit credit, except when paid to an employee who is permanently or irrevocably separated from his employment and (iii) the amount of severance pay that is attributed to the week. "

43 PS Section 804 (d) (1.1) has been added to the law and reads: "(i) 'Severance pay' means one or more payments made by an employer to an employee on account of separation from the service of the employer, regardless of whether the employee is legally bound by contract, statute or otherwise to make such payments. The term does not include payments for pension, retirement or accrued allowances or supplementary employment benefits. (ii) The amount of severance pay attributed to subclause (iii) shall be an amount not less than zero (0) determined by subtracting forty per centum (40%) of the average annual wage as calculated under subsection (e) as of June 30 immediately preceding the calendar year in which the claimant's benefit year begins from the total amount of severance pay paid or payable to the claimant by the employer. (iii) Severance pay is attributed as follows: (A) Severance pay is attributed to the day, days, week or weeks immediately following the employee's sep . (B) The number of days or weeks to which severance pay is attributed is determined by dividing the total amount of severance pay by the regular full-time daily or weekly wage of the claimant. (C) The amount of severance pay attributed to each day or week equals the regular full-time daily or weekly wage of the claimant. (D) When the attribution of severance pay is made on the basis of the number of days, the pay shall be attributed to the customary working days in the calendar week. "

Originally published on November 18, 2011 in The Legal Intelligencer.

The Lemon Laws

Lemon cars, trucks, vans and SUV’s are everywhere. Various statistics that I have seen indicate that anywhere from 1 out of 100 to 1 out of 8 vehicles are lemons. Staggering statistics, to say the least. A Lemon, by definition, is a defective vehicle. All states have Lemon Laws that provide protection to you in the event that you have purchased a lemon. These law vary from state to state, but all have common themes.

The first common theme is the defective condition of the vehicle. In other words, something has to go wrong with your vehicle. The state Lemon Laws typically define what elements satisfy the defective condition requirement in order to be classified as a lemon. In Pennsylvania, for instance, the vehicle must exhibit a defect or non-conformity that substantially impairs the use, value or safety of the vehicle. In my experience, these types of defects usually consist of defective brakes, transmissions, engines, suspensions, steering and things of that nature. Claims for electrical failures, noise and leaks usually are sufficient as well.

The next common theme among the state Lemon Laws is the obligation to attempt repairs. Each state Lemon Law sets forth that the manufacturer must be given a reasonable number of attempts to repair the vehicle’s defective condition. In Pennsylvania, that number is three. Some other states have the repair requirements set at four or more. If the Manufacturer or its agent (the dealer) cannot repair the vehicle after a reasonable number of attempts, you have a lemon.

The third common theme amongst state Lemon Laws is the remedy that you are entitled to if you have a lemon. Most states provide that the consumer is entitled to a full refund of the purchase price OR a free replacement vehicle. Some states go even further. In Pennsylvania the remedy includes all collateral charges as well as the purchase price, including taxes, title charges, down payment, interest and more. If you choose the refund election you may end up getting every dollar back that you put into the vehicle. In addition, most states provide for the recovery of attorney fees and costs as well.